Micro lesson introduction
    Explanation of the importance of education in relation to social transformation. Presenting an analysis of current historical developmental stage of humanity: Having arrived at a bifurcation point, necessitating transformations both on individual and collective levels of humanity. This is a global opportunity and challenge that faces all humanity. Special reference to the Afghani society and culture. What is needed there, as everywhere, is not just modern scientific and technological knowledge but a new mindset and worldview, as well as new societal institutions and structures. Key question: How can education help realize the potential of Afghani people to contribute to creating a new global civilization?

    Thinking tool: How to use questions in learning and development and how to question the obvious
    Exercise 1: Digging deeper with questions
    Exercise 2: Reading texts in a dialogical mode
    Exercise 3: The method of Socratic dialogs
    Exercise 4: Arguing for the unthinkable

    Question formulation – group work
    In small groups, with the help of a facilitator, students think of questions that they think are important and meaningful. The first phase is a brainstorming exercise where a maximum number of questions are produced without much thinking. The second phase is to select some key questions and justify why they are fundamentally important. The facilitator acts as a devil’s advocate.

    - Explanation of the importance of aims in education
    - Clarification of various layers of education: philosophical, theoretical, practical
    - Presentation of some of the main philosophies of education: Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, Reconstructivism
    - Elements to be highlighted in relation to each school of educational philosophy:
    1) View of human nature
    2) View of ideal society
    3) View of nature of knowledge and learning
    4) View of the role of the teacher
    - Primacy and significance of the question WHY?

    Case studies/Practical applications in available settings – individual work
    - Case studies prepared in advance that require practical application of principles and theories connected to an educational philosophy
    - Previous experiences re-considered in the light of philosophical principles

    Review and discussion of unit – group work
    -Thinking in terms of one’s own imaginary ideal school, what has one learned about the foundational aspects of that school. How would this school’s philosophical foundations contribute towards transforming the school’s students, the Afghani society, and the world at large?
    -Any other points or questions to be raised by the participants.
    -Preparation of “My educational credo”: 1-5 main principles that will act as guiding stars in one’s all educational endeavors.

    Personal takeaways, reflections and response to organizers
    -What am I taking with me from this module?
    -Why have these points been important and meaningful for me?
    -What aspects of the teaching and learning processes have been especially helpful to me and why?
    -What have I learned about my own learning and development?
    -What pedagogical aspects of the course should be maintained and what changes would I wish for?
    -What questions interest me and would like to have addressed in future modules and sessions?

    Kamran Namdar
    International Educational Consultant

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